If you need to know anything about Knowledge Management, Stan Garfield has probably already written about it. This prolific author and speaker has over 400 posts and various books on the topic showing not just his ideas, but also those of multiple people who are dedicated to this discipline.
Stan’s education is in Computer Science, but technology is not his only focus. As a true Knowledge Manager, he built relationships and communities to ensure information and ideas of an organization are captured and shared. In this interview you will learn about all the facets of KM and about his career. His experience includes leading KM programs and communities in professional services at HP and Deloitte.
What is your definition of Knowledge Management?
Knowledge management is the art of transforming information and intellectual assets into enduring value for an organization’s clients and its people. The purpose of knowledge management is to foster the reuse of intellectual capital, enable better decision making, and create the conditions for innovation.
KM provides people, processes, and technology to help knowledge flow to the right people, at the right time, so they can act more efficiently, effectively, and creatively. Knowledge management enables Sharing, Innovating, Reusing, Collaborating, and Learning.
What are some misconceptions of KM you see regularly?
- KM programs should try to implement every KM process and tool
- KM programs should start with technology and then roll out tools and drive adoption
- KM programs should focus on collecting documents or updating skills profiles
- It’s not necessary to meet in person and you can ignore the need to build trust
- KM teams can be moved around from one organization to another
- KM programs should rely on maturity models and benchmarking
- There are “best practices”
- KM programs should collect and report on all possible metrics
- It’s good to get certified in KM
- You can delegate KM to others
- You can push content
- KM is dead and KM needs a new name
- You can make people do things and incentives don’t work
- Social is frivolous
- Creation of communities and ESN groups should not be controlled
- Risks can be eliminated
- It’s possible to be like Google and Amazon
- KM people should try to work themselves out of a job
- Bigger is better for organizations, and smaller is better for community membership
- Everything is a community
- Our IP will be stolen if we don’t lock it down tightly
- The DIKW pyramid is useful
- The 90-9-1 rule for community participation is obsolete
- It’s possible to compute the ROI of KM
- Content should be archived after 90 days
What drew you to this field and to become a KM author?
I have always been interested in communication and in sharing information. In elementary school, I published a one-page newsletter. In high school, I operated a radio station. In college, I started out in the journalism school at Northwestern, but I got hooked on computer programming and transferred to the engineering school at Washington University.
I joined Digital Equipment Corporation in 1983, and they already had VAXnotes Conferences, which were early examples of online communities. As a professional services manager, I compiled information useful to my team members that included key contacts and pointers to reference material. The Key Contacts List became one of the most popular documents at Digital.
I edited and published a monthly newsletter called Systems Integration Notes. It was distributed via email, but I wanted to find a way to make it available on demand. Initially I used VAX VMS network transfers for this, and then Digital ALL-IN-1 shared file cabinets. When Digital launched its first intranet in 1995, I knew that this was a much better way to share information, and immediately embraced it. I became the editor of Digital’s Professional Services intranet site.
In 1996 I was asked to start Digital’s first knowledge management program. My background in journalism, computer programming, and information sharing made me a good candidate for this role, and I embraced it enthusiastically. I have been a knowledge manager ever since.
In 2004 I took over HP’s KM program. I attended a one-day APQC Proven Practice Replication workshop hosted by Ford. I was impressed by the work of Stan Kwiecien and his Ford KM colleagues, and invited them to present on an HP KM Community call. They did so, and then Stan asked me to present HP’s KM efforts to Ford. I didn’t think that what we were doing at HP was that impressive, but I reciprocated. I was surprised by Ford’s reaction to my talk – they were much more positive about our accomplishments than people at HP were. This inspired me to present and write about our knowledge management efforts, including my first conference presentations at APQC in 2005 and KMWorld in 2006. I submitted an article to Line56.com, and they asked me to write a weekly blog, which I did. When Line56 folded, I moved it to hp.com. When I left HP in 2008, I switched to tweeting. In 2014 I began writing weekly articles on LinkedIn.
I have also been writing articles for periodicals since 2006. One of these, Inside Knowledge, was published by The Ark Group, and they asked me to write a book in 2006, which was published in 2007 as Implementing a Successful KM Program. In 2016, Lucidea (a software company) asked me to write another book, Proven Practices for Promoting a KM Program, which came out in 2017. I have also been asked to contribute chapters to four other books, and I always agree to do so.
In Profiles in Knowledge you share stories of people who have contributed to the field and are no longer with us. What inspired you to do that?
I have written over 400 blog posts, so I have covered most of my original ideas. I wanted to shift my focus to share the great work that others have done. I noticed that for those who have passed away, or left the field of knowledge management, their writing is not always available online. By retrieving it from the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, I was able to bring back their lost content for the benefit of everyone in the field. And by celebrating the work of those who are no longer with us, I am able to remind others of those great ideas and accomplishments. When I do so, their surviving friends, family, and colleagues have expressed their appreciation to me, which is very gratifying.
How has the KM field evolved in the past 10 or 15 years?
The fundamental principles have not changed much over the past 25 years. Some of the approaches and components have evolved. In the initial phase of KM (approximately 1995-2005), the main efforts were related to collection:
- lessons learned
- proven practices
- content management
- expertise locators
- search engines
In the next ten years (2005-2015), Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 developed, and the emphasis shifted to connection:
- threaded discussions
- social software
Since about 2015, new trends have emerged:
- There is currently a lot of buzz around the ideas of digital workplace and digital transformation.
- Working Out Loud is a growing movement that encourages employees to narrate their work and broadcast what they’re doing so others can interact.
- Community management is emerging as a formal discipline where community managers are formally trained, developed, and assigned to full-time roles.
- Cognitive computing and artificial intelligence are being used to automate certain KM tasks and augment knowledge-related decision making.
- There is increased attention on analytics and business intelligence, which help KM use data to derive insights and inform actions and decisions.
- More organizations are adopting enterprise social networks, especially Microsoft and Workplace by Facebook, as a better user interface for online threaded discussions.
- Chat tools such as Slack, which are used predominately for team interaction, are gaining in popularity as well.
- Gamification and digital badging are new ways of framing incentives to recognize people for performing the knowledge-sharing and collaborative behaviors.
- Agile methodology originated in software development but is now being applied more broadly across the enterprise.
- Mobile apps and the bring your own device (BYOD) trend are reactions to more and more people using smart phones and tablets for work. KM must ensure that knowledge systems are optimized for mobile.
“Knowledge management is the art of transforming information and intellectual assets into enduring value for an organization’s clients and its people.”
Can you share a major challenge you tackled in your career (with a customer, or personally) and how did you address it?
When I led the HP KM program, there were frequent changes in the top leadership of the HP Consulting & Integration business that I supported. Each time a new senior vice president was named, I had to start over to educate them about KM, the KM program, and what I wanted them to do in support of it.
One new senior VP convened an advisory council of field consultants, and they were very critical of the KM program. I found myself on a conference call with the senior VP and the council members, and it was very difficult. They complained about several things, including the user interface, which they thought was too complicated.
Despite that fact that we offered multiple ways to interact with the KM system, including a standard intranet menu, an engagement knowledge map, and an A-Z index, they wanted a simpler option. Instead of being defensive, we set about to create a simple user interface, and worked with the harshest critic among the council members to design it. When that user was satisfied, and when we had made similar improvements to respond to the other complaints, we reconvened the senior VP and the council, and reviewed all of the changes. The council members embraced what we presented, and we turned around a dire situation.
The moral of this and other incidents we experienced: listen to your constituents, try to just say yes, and continuously improve in response to constructive feedback.
What key piece of advice would you give to an individual who wants to perform KM work or launch a KM program in their organization?
Start out by building expertise in knowledge management.To perform KM work:
- Set three simple goals and stick with them for the long term. Communicate them regularly. Incorporate the goals and metrics into as many parts of the organization as possible.
- Keep the people, process, and technology components of the KM program in balance. Don’t allow one element (e.g., technology) to dominate the other two.
- Lead by example. Model the collaboration and knowledge sharing behaviors you want the organization to adopt in how you run the KM program.
To launch a knowledge management program:
- Create a Top 3 Objectives List of challenges and opportunities which your KM program will address. These objectives align business direction with program goals.
- Provide 9 Answers to questions about people, process, and technology. This information defines who will participate, which processes will be required, and how tools will support the people and processes.
- Define the KM Strategy. These are specific actions which will be taken to implement the program.
- Gain the sponsorship of your senior executive through The 10 Commitments. These commitments from the leader of your organization will enable the KM strategy to be implemented.
- Create and execute the Implementation Plan. This plan spells out the details of implementing the initiative.
You regularly share recommended resources. What 2 or 3 key resources (books, podcasts, etc.), would you recommend to anyone who wants to know more about KM?
Here are six:
- Blog: Knoco Stories by Nick Milton
- Book: Working Knowledge by Thomas Davenport and Laurence Prusak
- Community: SIKM Leaders Community
- Conference: KMWorld
- Periodical: K Street Directions by Chris Riemer
- Site: Gurteen Knowledge Website by David Gurteen
Do you have questions, feedback or suggestions of people to interview? Contact me!