Marketing Puerto Rico: Interview with Alan Taveras

In recent weeks, news about Puerto Rico and its deepening economic crisis have occupied the attention of major U.S. publications: in sum, things are so bad everyone seems to be leaving the Island. I am one those Puerto Ricans who left (over a decade ago) but am also striving to find the silver lining. This is why when I heard the interview of Alan Taveras on the local podcast Empresarios I had to find out more about his initiative to promote Puerto Rican businesses.

Instead of planning their escape from the Puerto Rico, Alan and his brother Nestor Guarien Taveras not only stayed but also saw an opportunity to target the disapora while promoting local products through Brands of Puerto Rico. This virtual marketplace or as Alan calls it “the Amazon of Puerto Rican products” started a year ago.

The Taveras brothers, who have MBAs and attended the Founder Institute, were already building success with their Très Epic agency, a programming firm which provides services to advertising agencies in Puerto Rico. These agencies though, were big international brands.

Based on their own experience abroad (Guarien studied at Boston University while Alan went to Argentina’s University of Palermo), they saw there were consumers eager to get products from home and decided to launch the start up which has gained traction through the combination of traditional and digital marketing.

During a visit to their offices in Puerto Rico, I spoke with Alan about the importance of branding and advertising. We started the conversation talking about the origins of Brands of Puerto Rico.

Note: The interview has been edited for space.

… It was early March or the last days of February of 2014, it was the first time the bonds of Puerto Rico were downgraded to junk and the diaspora groups and every newspaper were talking about how (messed up) we were or how many people left Puerto Rico… (My brother and I) used to take one Friday each month to just throw ideas on the board like what type of startup we can do, because Très Epic was made for us to have capital to live and to invest in our ideas. That was the mission from the start… (One day) My brother was reading out loud an article… It said like monthly roughly 3,000 Puerto Ricans were leaving on those days to the states, mainly Florida as always. A lot of people were alarmed on this, it was like a crisis, my Facebook newsfeed was depressing to say the least.

(…) We started to look at that as an opportunity because since we were little, everyone would tell us Puerto Rico is a small market, entrepreneurs will never make it here and that’s why the big companies here are the distributors, because there is no space to create something new. So we started looking at that, (and also) we came across the fact that almost 5 million of people from Puerto Rico were living in the states. Suddenly it is an appealing market that nobody was thinking about. Everyone was focusing on how bad it was, but for us it was a good sign.

We started to research on local brands. There are a lot of people doing cool things in Puerto Rico, no one knows about them and they don’t have online presence. It was like connecting the dots… (We decided to) make a marketplace for local entrepreneurs to sell to that diaspora.

In terms of your marketing mindset, did you acquire that thanks to the Founder institute?

Founder Institute is really really tough on first, build the market. For example, with Brands of Puerto Rico we did not write a line of code until we had like a thousand followers on Facebook. So first, build that market and if it gets traction, build the product. That helped us create this fast and at really low cost.

How did you reach out to the people in the diaspora?

I don’t know if its something that is happening right now or if our idea had the prefect timing but suddenly the idea got a great response. (Local TV channel) WAPA featured us, we got an interview with CNN en español… It’s mostly organic, we have not an invested in marketing, I have to be honest on that… We have a saying here ‘try until you get it’ so every day we called the newspapers, every TV channel, ‘interview us, interview us’ until they said yes. Now what we do is invest a little bit and it is really targeted; we do digital marketing which is our forte, our knowledge. For example, I target campaigns to people in Orlando, I target campaigns to people in Brooklyn, New York and I can maximize the performance of my dollar to get to those people.

Also our biggest, biggest, biggest marketing weapon is word of mouth. If your cousin bought it in New York and he told all of his friends, it spreads.

In term of the overall idea, during the interview with the podcast you were wondering why it did not occurred to anyone before.

It’s a pretty simple concept. A lot of people tell me, ‘you are doing such innovative stuff’ but I don’t find that we are this breakthrough technology; its e-commerce. E-commerce has been here for decades. For me it’s a pretty simple idea to sell Puerto Rican brands to people from Puerto Rico outside of Puerto Rico.

Perhaps is the mentality that when it comes to producing something in the Island, people think just about the local market and they don’t really think in terms of outside markets.

Maybe it was that. Maybe it was the influence my brother and I had studying abroad that we see the world as a marketplace and not just Puerto Rico.

In term of finding the products locally and developing those relationships with local vendors, how do you do that?

In the first days it was almost impossible: imagine some kid coming to you telling that he is going to build a platform, it’s not even built, going to let you sell stuff for free and only charge you in transactions. We had a database of 300 brands and only 30 brands on our launch on July 11 (of 2014). Now because of the hype of the PR (public relations) people come to us, but in the first months we took a lot of nos: ‘Are you crazy?’, ‘You are going to sell on the Internet?.’

It’s been real fun because we have a lot of people that work on agriculture, that don’t have technology knowledge and we even sit down with them and open a Paypal account. I opened Paypal accounts for Antojitos de Mango, (the owner) is like 80 years old but for me he is the one of the best entrepreneurs I’ve ever known. He has so much knowledge, always with a smile in his face… Not everyone has this opportunity to learn a lot from the people who have been doing this their whole lives.

In regards of what you are doing now, is there some sort of model that you look up to in other countries that’s doing this as well?

Right now it’s a cool moment for us as a company. Brands of Puerto Rico is one year old and thanks to everything that has happened and the trust that these brands have put in us, we are starting to grow, not only to grow on the amount of companies we have in Puerto Rico, but we as a company are starting to expand to other markets.

We are about to launch Brands of Argentina, and Brands of Nicaragua. From my connections in Argentina, we are in conversation with some venture capitalists who are interested in putting money on the company for us to start building franchises on every market…We are going to implement what we learned here in this whole year.

What are your particular goals for Brands of Puerto Rico?

For Brands of Puerto RIco and for Brands of -I am starting to think as the Brands of concept and not just Brands of Puerto Rico,- is to create the biggest quality oriented catalogs of brands and products of Latin America, and supply to that diaspora in the United States… Basically show the world that not everything is big brands in multinational companies, that good things are made by people who work in modest ways and they do deserve a chance. I think Brands of and our platform is a tool to give them the chance, that equal plane level field. For example, if you want a t-shirt you can buy Sotomayor which is local entrepreneur instead of going to Pac Sun in a mall.

How many brands do you have?

I have 80, I counted 2 weeks ago… but we have a pipeline. Let me tell you the process: you (as company) learn from us and we learn about you. We have a formal phone call or email and you come here to our offices with the product. We do the screening to see if it’s good quality, if it’s local brand, if that person is registered in the government, that is really important. We do a photo shoot free of cost for that brand and those photos, once they are properly edited, are uploaded to our e-commerce platform. We do a blog post, we do a social media post… Our business model is transaction based, we make 20% of each transaction.

If they are not registered, do you help them?

We help them with everything… We’ve done logos for people… A lot of people tell me ‘you are not supposed to that.’ If they don’t have a standard they are not going to sell, so it’s really important for me personally and for the company to make these entrepreneurs think and act upon their brand. A product is a product until you build a brand around it.

Is that something often people forget, to market their brand?

I’ve talked to so many entrepreneurs in the last year, I learned that different to how we think, people out there think the product is the star. For me, because I studied Advertising and then in Business I concentrated in Marketing, for me what is the star is the brand. You can sell this pen, anything, if you have a brand around it, if your communication is good, if your look is good. I think like that. But I learned most entrepreneurs here in Puerto Rico don’t give a (crap) about it… We are trying to teach people that the brand is really important and how you communicate, how you do advertising, is as important as a product.

Would you recommend people to study advertising?

I will recommend studying advertising not necessarily to work on advertising. It helps you communicate better. You can be an accountant, you can be a lawyer, you can be anything, but advertising helps you sell and communicate better and have a presence that is appealing to the market… If you are looking for a date, if you are trying to sell something, if you are trying to get out of trouble, if you communicate good, Is effective.

I think it’s important the way you communicate things.

Follow Brands of Puerto Rico on Twitter @brandsofpr or email Alan at info@brandsofpuertorico.com

Follow the author @yadicarocaro

She Likes Long Text Messages Because She Appreciates a Complete Thought: Interview with Alex Wall

The title of this blog captures the beginning of the career of Alex Wall in digital marketing. The Lead Marketing Strategist at Roar Media (and Muay Thai fighter) started delving into this field while in college at University of Central Florida using a variation of the text above (read on to learn more). In her career, she has continued searching for the latest trends and applying new approaches, including tactics learned from science.

During a recent presentation during Social Media Day Miami on ‘Social Neuromarketing,’ Alex used images, quotes and stats to tell the story of what social media does to our brains and how can marketers and content developers use it to their advantage. In our interview we talked about applying science to advertising, how Internet has been her tool to learn and connect, and her love for ads. She wants people to love ads too as a “meaningful experience or exchange, not a corporate apparatus.”

In terms describing what you do, how would you describe your roles?

I am a full stack digital marketer so I manage the digital department at an integrated PR marketing communications agency. More or less if it happens on the internet is something that I have some purview over. I cut my teeth on the bread and butter of SEO (search engine optimization), social media, web design, and copyrighting… I build out from there with a really heavy emphasis on persuasion marketing using psychology to increase conversion and analytics using math. I think I take a pretty scientific approach to it.

What is your background? Do you have a background in all those fields or is it a passion of yours?

It’s kind of funny. I don’t really have a background in marketing prior to actually doing it… My degrees are in English Literature and Philosophy. I was not ever really in Business or Marketing or Advertising, but I started building websites when I was 11 or 12 years old. My first website, I think I was 11, was a Pokémon website. I had some friends on the Internet who also loved Pokémon. The weakness of the gateway system at that time was that in order to be able to play against somebody, you had to be standing right next to them. I was like ‘that’s garbage because I don’t have a lot of friends in my immediate periphery because I am a weird little kid, but I have lots of friends that I can stand on the internet’ because I think I was like one of the first kids on my block to have computer.’ So I built websites where I could host my Pokémon data and then run simulation Pokémon matches against other nerdy children out there. I started coding when I was about 11.

How did you learn?

I just looked it up. There were a bunch of tutorials on the Internet and I just looked it up…There was no WordPress; I just coded in just straight HTML, XHTML because that was the thing back then and I was into that. I had fun with it. I played around a lot. Then I moved on to college and studied the Humanities and I studied classics and I studied communication. I was a debater. I was also a speaker… and I did copywriting to make extra money.

Then one day I was fucking around on the Internet on Facebook, which was a relatively new thing back then. It was before it was opened up to everybody and it was just for college students. So I was messing around on it and this was back when you could make Like pages, just like anything, like the cool side of the pillow…you could make these Like pages so I made one. Just being a condescending English major, I should have made some trademarking around it because you now can Google it to this day and find it everywhere, I wrote ‘I like long text messages because I appreciate a complete thought.’ I just thought that was hysterical and I liked it, 13 of my friends liked it and that was cool and I walked away from it. You know I won’t do like a slow build up here but within 3 or 4 months that page had 1.6 million people following it.

(…) This was the precursor to Facebook pages as something that was done for businesses or brands or locations.. So I had all these people following me and advertisers started reaching out to me… offering to post links to their online t-shirt shops… The ecommerce sites that were sarcastic in nature, these smart ass t-shirts shops… would say ‘we’ll give you X dollars to order, we’ll give you 15% commission and kick back.’ So I basically started doing affiliated marketing through that Facebook page, just goofing off and I ended up making a substantial amount of money figuring out affiliate marketing and running that page.

Is that page still available today?

No, I actually got out at a good time because Facebook completely changed the way they do their pages now. You are no longer able to create a page that represents an idea or sentence…That taught me something important abut social media and about Internet marketing and making money on the web which is don’t build your house on someone else’s land… If you build your model around someone else’s platform like Facebook and they change their platform and they disrupt your model, you’re screwed. Sorry.

That’s why email has always been such a dominant format cause you always own our email list. If people subscribe to your stuff or whatever, you always have your email list…. It was an accidental breakneck speed education I would say.

 Is your specialization neuromarketing?

I am a specialist in it but I am not practicing specialist. I sort of moved on to broader topics and here’s why: there is not that many people in Florida talking about neuromarketing. I think that a lot of people in marketing come from two angles: they come from a communication and a journalist angle, or they come at it from a sales angle, and neither of those is sufficient to really grapple with the complex problems that neuromarketing tries to solve.

(…) I’ve spent a few years as part of a passion project really getting into neuromarketing and learning as much about it as I could. I even consulted with a neuroscientist in California. But there is really nobody else talking about it.

I became fascinated by it and the reason that I originally became fascinated by it is because I thought it was bullshit. I was part right, because what people say about neuromarketing and what people think about neuro-marketing is mostly bullshit. Someone posted a video a few days ago about subliminal marketing and how advertisers found the ways to hide the word ‘sex’ in Coke cans and that make Coke cans sell more. No, it doesn’t! Nobody thinks that. They experimented with shit like that in the 1960s and 1970s… Unless you are selling condoms there is no business advantage in trying to show dirty stuff in your ads, so when I see stuff like subliminal messaging, trying to get you to buy stuff by showing stuff about sex, that’s garbage, that’s total pseudoscience and that’s garbage.

There are principles though that we learn from the study of neuromarketing. Neuromarketing really is not a practice, the practice is in learning from neuroscience and occasionally being able to conduct real tests, which are very costly… Some of the principles that I went over in my talk like contrasts, things like narrative instead of statistics, pain marketing, fear marketing, show people what their life is like without your product and then show them what is like with your product. I guarantee you, if somebody is not doing that and starts doing that, the sales are going to double. The sales are going to double and if they are not, call me Sally.

 It is interesting and it seems like a topic that should be addressed more. People want to know what the foundation for all of this is. They want science to be behind this. They want the evidence.

John Wanamaker said once ‘half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, the trouble is I don’t know which half.’ I only think that neuromarketing combined with analytics seeks to answers that question…With either one, with good data analysis or with neuromarketing I think you can figure out where you are wasting money because with neuromarketing you learn which messages are more effective before you send them out, whereas data, metrics, analytics… can help you understand on where you are making and losing money once your campaign is live. And that’s helpful with an ongoing digital campaign, with something you can start and stop and turn on and edit. But if you are doing a study because you are going to spend 30 million dollars to run a Super Bowl commercial or whatever it is, you kind of want that information up front. You can’t turn it on and adjust it on the fly. You need to film that shit way, way in advance. It’s those types of campaigns that benefit the most from neuromarketing tests…Pretty much everything else you just learn from what is already being learned.

From your particular experience, what do you see to be the trends to look out in the future?

I’ll tell you: chat app marketing, for messaging apps. You are going to see brands trying to get on WhatsApp, on Kik and other one to one messaging apps.

(…) Video has been blowing up year over year, its still headed in that direction. The best investment a small business owner can make right now or somebody who wants to be a digital marketing consultant or start an ecommerce or retail business, the best investment they can make right now is invest on a nice camera. Because visual content is the future for the Internet, absolutely.

How do you see yourself in the future? Are there are aspects of marketing that interest you more?

What I like to do is being involved at developing new types of ads, new types of marketing messages, new ways to communicate with people… When you go and you spend money to place ads on the Internet, that is where the money of digital advertising in. It’s not in SEO or organic social media management. It’s in content and good content and it’s in paid media. That’s where 95% of the money is. If anybody else tells you differently they are either lucky or lying.

I love marketing, I love digital marketing, I love the Internet, I’ve always have. I have a very philosophical take on the Internet and the opportunities it presents and part of it is sentimental… (Growing up) kids would come up and say, ‘can Alex come out and play’ and I would go tell my mom ‘can you say that I can’t go out and play’, ‘can you say that I am grounded so I can’t go out’? I did not have the spine to say ‘no fuck off.’ I do now.

I wanted to be liked but I also did not wanted to hang out with them. I wanted to do my own stuff. The Internet to me gave me a lot of opportunities to get in touch and to learn stuff. Almost everything that I’ve learned about marketing, media and social and everything, I learned online, I learned by doing. I’ve taken online classes, I’ve gone to seminars, I’ve gone to conferences, done a couple of workshops. But mostly I just read, and tried and failed and tried again, failed and read and that’s just it. That’s it. And I failed Algebra 2 twice in middle school and high school so if I can do it, absolutely anybody can do it.

I think I am just so stubborn that I won’t stop doing something until I get my way.

Follow Alex Wall on Twitter @AlexlWall

Follow the author @yadicarocaro

‘There are no social media experts’: Interview with Knight Innovator Alex de Carvalho

When I met Alex de Carvalho for an interview, he looked tired but also glowing. He was still beaming from organizing and hosting Social Media Day South Florida, an event he created which gathered over 400 enthusiasts and speakers to share best practices and new ideas. The Brazilian/Finnish entrepeneur, speaker and blogger creates spaces for people to connect: he founded the Social Media Club South FloridaBar­CampIgnite, and he is also a founding member of Refresh Miami.

Currently, Alex is the Knight Foundation Innovator in Residence at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Florida International University. In this position, he works with students and faculty to develop innovation programs and use digital technology to address real world issues. He has also hosted events such as the Media Party and the Scripps international Innovator’s Cup.

Previously, he launched various Internet startups in U.S. and Europe, he was a strategy consultant, and an instructor at the University of Miami’s School of Communications. He also co-authored “Securing the Clicks: Network Security in the Age of Social Media.

He is friendly and willing to help (agreeing to this interview showcases it). I was curious about his motivations to start community building, his current projects as Knight Innovator and why he thinks social media experts do not exist. What follows is our conversation, edited for content and space.

It seems the common element for all of these things you do is networking: get people from different locations and bring them together. Is that your purpose?

Yes, you could say that. I started blogging about 12 years ago. I was living in Paris and by blogging I met these incredible people, these other bloggers who became friends and I started to go to their events. They had meet ups… I started going to Internet conferences, I met a lot of startup companies and I fell in love with this whole new way of meeting people which was actually by blogging. There was no Facebook, no Twitter, it was just by blogging and figuring out, ‘oh there is an event, let me meet these new people who are bloggers.’

What were the topics that you were blogging about?

I had two blogs: I had my own personal blog which I still have which was more about my thoughts on tech. I do not blog so often anymore but I used to blog a couple of times a week. Then I also had another blog, which was the “Year of Brazil in France.” Every year, France honors a different country and that year (2005) they were honoring Brazil… I am Brazilian, I was like ‘wow, I should blog about what is going on!’ There were a bunch of events, singers, artists and because I was blogging about it, my blog became more popular than the official site. The reason is that the official site was just listing all of the events. If you are French, you did not know what was good or not. So I was blogging about the good events that I had gone to and that I took photos of, or the ones that I would recommend. That’s why my blog had more traffic than the official site for the year in Brazil in France; that also meant that the bloggers in Paris got to know me as the Brazilian blogger. They loved it and … I met a lot of people and made many friends in that French blog and startup community.

When I came to Miami I had already lived here previously for 10 years… Meeting people in Miami was very different than the way you meet people than in Paris and London. In Paris and London you have dinner parties, you have many more conversations. Here, when you go out at night, the music is so loud you can’t speak to anyone. When you go out in South Beach, it’s all about the car you drive, whether you have a Rolex, spending 25 dollars for a drink, and then you can’t even speak to anyone because its so loud! It’s very difficult. So coming here I wanted to meet people in a more cultural way, in a more intellectual way, around topics of shared interest, which is why I cofounded RefreshMiami. I did that for 4 years and then I created Social Media Club South Florida and I started creating these events: BarCamp, Ignite, and Social Media Day. These were ways of bringing people together in a new, relevant, high value way where you can actually speak to intelligent people and where the music was not loud so people could understand what you were up to.

Why the interest in technology? Did you grow up interested in that?

I went to Business school and then I did an MBA to work in marketing but I always felt that there is something wrong with marketing. For example, there is product manager at Crest and there is product manager at Colgate. Crest and Colgate are basically equivalent products. There is no difference, and yet these two product managers are fighting for market share, and their entire bonus and salary depends on ‘how can I get more market share than my competitor?’ So how do they do it? They do it through marketing messages, they do it by spending money, photoshopping stuff, doing press releases. It all seems like a lie, and it all seem very futile. Why would I go to school to an MBA and work for Colgate or Crest? Why should I sell this suntan lotion and not that one? It all seems to me very pointless. There had to be a better way. That better way is social media.

After my MBA I was a management consultant doing business strategy and then I created a startup in 1999 about email marketing. I started creating permission-based marketing where people opted-in to get your messages because they were interested in what you were selling. I learned about social media where you are blogging about your interest; if I like this coffee then I am going to write something about the coffee because I like that coffee. If you follow my blog you’ll say ‘he is Brazilian, he likes coffee, let me try it out.’ It seems like much more authentic way for a brand to connect with people than some kind of a photoshopped thing with a Colombian coffee producer with a donkey that does not exist…

That’s s why I fell in love with social media. It’s a more authentic way to talk to people.

Companies still do it, they push the message.

Of course, you have to because there is still TV and magazines, so you still have to do traditional advertising. Now with social media, you should also be on Facebook and Twitter. You should be on Pinterest, you should be trying creative things.

Talking about social media and the people who do social media for these brands, they are so-called experts. What is your perception on this? Are there any social media experts?

No, I don’t believe there are any social media experts, especially because social media has only been around for 10-15 years. By social media I mean blogging and things like Facebook and Twitter and such. People would say ‘yeah social media existed through the bulletin boards, aol,’ ok, whatever, I am talking about modern social media. It’s too young. It’s not like accounting that has existed for hundreds of years and traditional marketing which has existed for 50, 60-70 years, where there is a body of knowledge.

In social media you don’t have that yet because it’s new and the platforms themselves are new. The platforms are changing all the time…There is no way to know everything about Facebook because Facebook even right now is testing something new in a market you are not in. They might roll it out into your market but all of a sudden you were an expert and now you are no longer because it’s new. There are too many platforms and you can’t know everything about all the platforms.

But also social media management requires a lot of skills… We are talking about doing computer based technical things to being in front of people and speaking at an event, to doing strategy, to managing graphic artists, to maybe even managing a development team, to creating an app. So look at all these different kinds of skills, it’s very hard for one person to have all those skills. So that is why I say there are no experts.

During Social Media Day there was a lot of discussion about doing effective social media strategies. The book you co-wrote Securing the Clicks was more about the security aspect that should be addressed. Do you think companies are forgetting that?

Yeah, I think so. I think companies are not paying attention to security and the security really should be looked at in very holistic fashion. All aspects of risks for business from computer based network security, to reputation risks, to intellectual capital to copyrights… Creating policies for companies is important so employees know what to do and what not to do on social media.

During Social Media you were with a Red Cross representative talking about a new project. What is the project that all about? Is there some gap in disaster relief and social media?

There is a gap of knowledge about what goes on in digital and social media about what goes on in a disaster. First responders do not have that knowledge. They have not ever needed to because they get calls from 911 and 311. They are prepared for disaster… but they are not prepared for the “explosion” of social media during and after disasters.

It’s interesting because digital humanitarians are there and they will always be there. If something happens in Nepal, they are going to help,;if something happens in Haiti… People from around the world crowdsource online, do mapping projects, NGO identifying, people finders, and so on. People find projects and different things they can do online to help first responders. But the first responders are not always aware of these things… They are not in social media and they do not know how to get their official messages out.

When there is a disaster there are a lot of rumors and photoshopped photos and things that are false, which go viral… The Red Cross has real information, like ‘here are where the shelters are,’ ‘there is flooding over there’ and those messages are not getting out because people online are still paying attention to celebrities like Justin Bieber… I think cities can do a lot to prepare digitally so that when there is a disaster the first responders are not wasting resources and are connecting better. I think there is still a lot to be done. This is what that research my research is about and the possibilities excite me.

In terms of professionals in communications who want to target their careers towards the future, what should be good to know?

I think social media is a good skill for any field, but especially communications and journalism students. The world has changed completely; the professors obviously have great skill and knowledge but these professors come from a more traditional form of journalism and PR… The world the student is graduating into is not the world the professor came from. It’s now a world of digital entrepeneurship and it’s a world of personal branding. I don’t like the phrase ‘personal branding’ but people understand what it means. It means to create a professional persona online where others are going to hire you based on the way you present yourself. I don’t think those skills are being taught in school. I don’t know that entrepeneurship is being taught to communication students.

I know that in journalism school you learn that you must take yourself out of the story and you learn to fair and balanced, to be neutral. It’s exactly the opposite of what works online. If you are a blogger, you are a part of the story. In fact, people follow you because of your story, because of your challenges, your dreams, what you are trying to do. People like it when they know that you are from the left or the right…Anderson Cooper and Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, but also other news personalities, we pretty much know where they are; meanwhile, the journalism students are taught you cannot put yourself in the story when you interview… Even BuzzFeed likes to hire people that already have a community: it’s not that you know about fashion, is that you built a community of ten thousand followers because of fashion…But are students being taught that too? Students have to figure it out for themselves.

To get in touch with Alex de Carvalho, contact him via Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin or Instagram.

Follow the author on Twitter @yadicarocaro